Abadeh carpet, hand knotted Persian carpets from the village of Abadeh which lies between Isfahan and Shiraz in Iran.

Abrash, a Turkish word meaning partly coloured. It shows as a kind of variation in colours within the same colour nuance in the pile on Oriental nomadic carpets.
Achty carpet, a different name for Daghestan carpets.

Afghani carpets, handmade carpets from Afghanistan (Khal Mohammadi). These carpets are often made by the Turkomans in the northern and north-eastern parts of the country. The carpets have a warp made of wool, with elements of wool or cotton and red as the dominating colour. They are usually knotted with rough yarns and decorated with the eight-shaped Gül patterns. Older Afghan carpets are often sold as Ersari carpets.

Afshar carpets, also called Kerman-Afshar carpets. These carpets are handmade by semi-nomadic Afshars in the region of Kerman in south-eastern Iran.

Agra carpets, hand-made carpets from Agra in India. Two of the worlds largest carpets originate from this area. One of them is located at Windsor Castle in England and measures 10.25×21.50 metres and the other one can be found in a hotel in Agra and measures 12.25×39 metres!

Ak-Hissar carpets, handmade Anatolian carpet with geometrical patterns. Manufactured north-east of Izmir, in Anatolia.

Akhty carpets, handmade carpets from the city of Akhty in northern Caucasia.

Akstafa carpets, handmade carpets from Caucasia. These carpets are made with a Turkish knot and have a high knot density and usually with a rectangular shape.

Alizarin dyes, synthetic colours which are sometimes used when dying yarn for carpets.

Amoghli, Emoghli, the name of an Iranian master weaver of Oriental carpets. He was active in the city of Mashad between 1900 and 1920. Amoghli often signed his carpets, which were knotted with high-class wool and had a high knot density with a very fine pattern. Often comes with 3-5 cm wide blue woven borders on the long sides.

Amritsar carpets, Indo carpets from Amritsar in Punjab. It is solid utility goods which are made in the modern days and not considered as interesting as a piece of art.

Anatolian carpets, name of handmade carpets from Turkey. Known famous Anatolian carpets are the “Smyrna” and the “Sparta” carpets.

Aniline dyes, synthetic colours sometimes used to dye yarns for carpet manufacturing.

Arak carpets, handmade carpets made in the city of Arak (formerly Sultanabad) which lies in the province of Hamadan in western Iran. To the family of Arak carpets the following are counted: Ferahan, Mahal and Ziegler carpets. Even though these carpets are manufactured in Hamadan they are not included in the group of Hamadan carpets.
Ardabil Carpet, Ardebil carpet, the worlds most famous Persian carpet.
Ardakan carpets, handmade carpets from the north-western parts of the province Yazd in Iran. These carpets are similar to Keshan carpets, in both patterns and colours.

Ardalan carpets, a newer handmade carpet from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Ardebil carpets, handmade carpets from northern Iran, near the border of Caucasus and the Caspian Sea.

Armanibaff, Armenian made carpet. It is knotted with a Turkish knot (symmetrical knot/Ghiordes) in rather dark colours. The pattern for the carpet consists of geometrical or Mir-e butha motif. The carpets resemble the Loristan and Bakthiari carpets.

Armenian carpets, handmade carpets manufactured in Armenia, for example Karabach, some Kazak and Jerevan carpets. The old dragon carpets are also Armenian, as well as the famous Marby Carpet and the Berlin Carpet.

Arraiolos carpets, embroided carpets manufactured in the Portuguese town Arraiolos in the province of Alentejo. The older carpets are probably from the 17th century and inspired by Persian carpets.

Asadabad carpets, handmade carpets from the district of Hamadan in Iran.

Ashkali, the name of a carpet pattern sometimes found on old Ghashghai carpets but seldom on newer carpets. The pattern consists of two eight-shapes (octagons) inside each other, of which the innermost are closely decorated with hooks.

Asymmetrical knot, a different name for the Persian knot and the Senneh knot.

Aubusson carpets, carpets woven in the cities of Aubusson and Felletin in central France.

Axminster carpets, Turkish style carpets made in the city of Axminster, England.

Azerbaijan carpets, handmade carpets manufactured partly in south-eastern Caucasus, in Azerbaijan, and partly in the adjacent Iranian province Azarbaijan. The carpets from Caucasus are often named Akstafa, Chila, Lenkoran, Mugan, Sjirvan or Talysj carpets. The carpets from Azarbaijan are named Heriz, Karaje, Sarab and Tabriz carpets.

Bahawalpur carpets, handmade from the city and province with the same name in Pakistan.

Bakhshaish carpets, manufactured in a district stretching from the Lake Urmia to Heriz, Iran.

Bakhtiari carpets, also called Bachtiari or Bakthiyar carpets. Handmade carpets made by the Bakhtiari nomads in south-western Iran.

Baku carpets, carpets made in and around the famous Caucasian oil city Baku. The curvilinear flame pattern, called Mir-e butha, is one of the most common patterns in Oriental carpets. In the old carpets the warp consists of wool, the weft of cotton and they are usually knotted with 100.000-150.000 knots per square metre.

Balkan carpets, handmade carpets mainly from Romania, Greece, Bulgary and former Yugoslavia. The pattern in these carpets are borrowed from Persian, Turkish and Caucasian carpets and they are made of a fine wool quality. Synthetic colours are used which are not so clear and visible as in the Persian carpets for example.

Baluchi carpets, a different name for Beluch carpets.

Bannu carpets, handmade carpets from Bannu, southwest of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Baotou carpets, small handmade carpets (about 1 sqm), manufactured in and around Baotou in China. The carpets are characterized mainly by landscape and symbol motifs in different blue nuances as the dominating colour.

Basjir carpets, also called Besjir, Beshir carpets. Handmade carpets made by Turkoman Beshir nomads around the village of Basjir in Turkmenia. The carpets are made entirely of wool with red, blue, beige as main colours, but also elements of yellow occur. They are Orientally designed with Gül patterns but can also be found with Chinese cloud motifs. Warp and weft consists of wool, the pile is of average length and they are knotted with Persian knots, some presence of Turkish knots.

Bathroom carpet, a carpet mainly intended for the bathroom to stand on after showering/bathing. Feel free to use a handmade carpet, but remember to let it dry thorouhgly afterwards.

Beijing carpets, handmade carpets manufactured in Beijing (Peking), China, and its surroundings since the late 19th century. Older Beijing carpets often have traditional dragon, medallion and symbol motifs. The carpets that are newly made have varied patterns and often relievo-cut pile and there are also new productions of thin antique treated carpets.

Beluch carpets, also called Baluch carpets, handmade carpets originally manufactured by the Baluch nomads near the border between Iran and Afghanistan.

Benares carpets, handmade Indo carpets from the city of Benares in India. The carpets are woven in a classic Oriental design with wool from India and New Zeeland with inspiration from Bidjar, Kirman and Mir carpets.

Berber carpets, rustic pile carpets made of unspun wool from sheep. The carpets are made by Berbers, the original population, mainly in Morocco but also in Tunisia and Algeria. The carpets are rectangular with several borders and stripes along the edges, heavy and often naturally single-coloured in beige or brown and sometimes they have elements of simple geometrical patterns made of coloured wool. The patterns that sometimes occur on the carpets are heavy stylized with flowers, animals and stars and with an evident stairway-shaped termination on the medallions. The carpet shows an obvious relationship with Anatolian carpets.

Berdelyk, Persian-Turkish denomination of a carpet intended for hanging on a wall. The carpets are often made of silk and the pattern is generally asymmetrical indicating the direction in which the carpet is to be hanged.

Bergamo carpets, handmade carpets manufactured in the surroundings of the city of Bergamo on the Turkish west coast. These carpets are known as Anatolian carpets and are generally squared in shape and made entirely of wool, with red weft threads giving it a red-striped backside. The pattern of these carpets are always geometrical, often around a large angular medallion surrounded by flowers. The colours are warm red/red-brown but also blue, beige and yellow colours occur.

Berlin Carpet, handmade Anatolian carpet from early 15th century. The carpet, approximately 172 x 90 cm, was found in 1886 well-preserved in an Italian church and can be seen today at the Museum für Islamische Kunst in Berlin. The carpet is made entirely out of wool and has a pattern with a stylized dragon and the bird Phoenix.

Beshir carpets, a different name for Basjir carpets.

Besjir carpets, a different name for Basjir carpets.

Bhadohi carpets, handmade carpets from Bhadohi, India with a history from the Moguls.

Bibibaff, a name for the best carpets with the highest knot density made by the Persian Bakhtiari nomads. The name originates from the word baff meaning knot and bibi which is the name of the tribes or the family’s most respected woman who also is the skilled of the carpet weavers.

Bibikabad carpets, rather thick and rough handmade carpets from the district of Hamadan in Iran.

Bidjar carpets, bijar carpets, the name originates from the city of Bidjar in Iran.

Bijar carpets, a different name for Bidjar carpets.

Bird-Ushak carpets, carpets manufactured in the city of Ushak in western Turkey during the 16th and 17th century. The carpet can often be recognized on its repetitive pattern with roughly stylized birds.

Bochara carpets, a different name for Bokhara carpets.

Bokhara carpets, manufactured by Turkoman tribes in Western Turkestan in Central Asia. The town of Bokhara was formerly a trading place for these carpets. Nowadays the carpets are named after the different tribes and the common denomination for these Turkoman carpets. Today the name Bokhara carpets are used for carpets with a special pattern, Bokhara, a repetitive pattern with Göl motif.

Bokhara-Suzani carpets, embroided carpets originating from Central Asia, specially from the city of Bokhara in Uzbekistan. The carpets, manufactured by handspun wool and embroided with silk in many colours, were manufactured mainly in the 18th and 19th century by the women in the families. The carpets were often a part of the younger womens dowry in return for the price paid for the bride.

Borchalou carpets, a different name for Burchalow carpets.

Borlou carpets, handmade Anatolian carpets from the city of Borlou in Anatolia.

Bouclé carpets, Brussel carpets, a.k.a. “loop pile carpets”. The name refers to Jaquard woven carpets with loops made of a special warp. The carpets consists of different systems of threads, one for each patterns colour and the ground weave consists of complementary warp and wefts, where the patterns are not visible on the seamy side. When the loops are cut the carpets are called Wilton carpets.

Brusa carpets, usually small carpets made of silk, and family praying carpets, a.k.a. Saff. The carpets are manufactured in the city of Brussa (Bursa) south of the Sea of Marmara.

Brussel carpets, a different name for Bouclé carpets.

Buchara carpets, a different name for Bokhara carpets.

Bukhara carpets, a different name for Bokhara carpets.

Burchalow carpets, Borchalou carpets, handmade carpets from the district of Burchalow east of Hamadan in western Iran. The carpets, with warp and weft of cotton, are often decorated with medallions and flower-motifs and of high quality.

Bursa carpets, a different name for Brusa carpets.

Burujird carpets, handmade carpets from the district of Iraq-Ajemid, Iran.

Buteh, a common pattern in handmade carpets, also see Mir-e butha.

Cairene carpets, older handknotted carpets from Cairo, Egypt. They were manufactured in the 16th to 18th centuries and have a clean, Persian pattern like palmettes, arabesques, medallions.
Camel-hair, the wool or hair from the camel occurs very seldom in carpet manufacturing nowadays, because of the not so pleasant smell that is released when there is warm and moist weather.
Cattle hair carpet, a carpet manufactured by a mix of wool and hair from cattles.

Caucasian carpets, handknotted carpets from the areas south, east and north of Caucasus.

Chaudor carpets, a different name for Tjaudor carpets.

Chelsea Carpet, handmade Persian carpet from the middle of the 16th century. The name originates from its place of discovery, at an antique dealer in the Chelsea district in London. Can be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The carpet (549 x 300 cm) has a pile made of wool and weft and warp made of silk (750 000 knots/sqm) and has a floral pattern on a red bottom, two medallions in blue and animal motifs. It is believed to be manufactured in Tabriz, Iran.

Chichi carpets, a different name for Tji-Tji carpets.

Chinese carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured in China.

Chorasan carpets, a different name for Khorasan carpets.

Choremabad carpets, handmade carpets from the district of Loristan, Iran.

Chotan carpets, handmade carpets from Eastern Turkestan.

Chrome dyes synthetic colours that is used sometimes to dye yarn for carpets.

Chuval, a different name for Tjuval.

City carpets, a different name for workshop carpets.

Cork wool, the finest part of the wool, cut from the neck of the sheep.
Cotton, Gossy´pium, from the family of Malva plants and exists in tropical and sub-tropical areas. One of the most important materials used when manufacturing carpets.
Daghestan carpets, handknotted geometric patterned carpets from Daghestan. Older Daghestan carpets (until 1925) are entirely made of wool and comes with clear natural colours. The carpets were often used as praying carpets. The newer carpets have warp and weft made of cotton and are dominated by synthetic colours. These so called Kolchos carpets are heavily washed, often giving a sort of greyish nuance. Newly made carpets are often called Micrach, Achty or Derbent carpets.

Demirdji carpets, handknotted Turkish carpets with Ghiordes and Kula patterns.

Derbent carpets, handknotted geometric patterned carpets manufactured in the city of Derbent in Daghestan, north-eastern Caucasus, and in its surroundings. The carpets that are manufactured before 1925 differs from the rest by its longer pile, fewer colours and a more loose and rougher knotting.

Dergezin carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Hamadan in Iran.

Dhurrie, a different name for Dorri.

Djabrail carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Karabagh in southern Caucasus.

Djoscheghan carpets, a different name for Joshagan carpets.

Dorri, also named Dhurrie/Durrie. It is the name on a Indo kelim weave that is entirely made in cotton. The modern manufacturing of durable Dorri-products, as pictoral weaves and carpets, in soft colours is very popular today.

Dorukhsh carpets (after the place Dorukhsh, Iran), handknotted Persian carpets, see Khorasan carpets.

Dosar, a different name for Dozar.

Dozar, a term for the size of handknotted carpets; from 200×120 cm to 210×140 cm.

Dragon carpets, handknotted carpets from Caucasia and northern Iran. The carpets were manufactured by Armenians during the period between 16th-19th century. Red is the dominating colour on the carpets and the knot density is often around 150 000 knots/squm and the most common size is Kelley. The pattern consists of a squared pattern with lancet leaves with stylized dragons, the bird Phoenix, flowers, trees and palmettes.

Durrie, a different name for Dorri.

East Turkestan carpets, handknotted carpets from Xinjiang (East Turkestan) in north-western China.
Egyptian carpets, are often divided into three categories; Mamluk, Cairo and newly manufactured carpets.

Ekbatana carpets, thick and rough handknotted carpets from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Eluru carpets, handknotted carpets from Eluru in India.

Elvend carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Emoghli, a different name for Amoghli.

Endjilas carpets, a different name for Enjilas carpets.

Enessi, a different name for engsi.

Engsi, enessi / ensi, Turkoman handknotted curtain for tents. The most common pattern is the Hatchlu and older curtains are often made in Zaronim-size (approximately 150×100 cm). Nowadays there are an extensive production of these tent-curtains.

Enjilas carpets, Endjilas, Injilas, Indjelas carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Enjilas, outside Hamadan in Iran. The central piece in the carpets always consists of a floral motif, Herati pattern, sometimes with a medallion and are dominated by red and blue colours. The most common size is dozar (approximately 210 × ca 125 cm).

Ensi, a different name for engsi.

Erivan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city and district of Erivan in Armenia.

Ersari carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured in northern Afghanistan. The Ersari carpets are often the denomination on older Afghan carpets, after a tribe living in the north of Afghanistan. The carpets are often rust-red with larger octogons and a thinner border than on the younger carpets. It is possible to see the influence from the war in some newer patterns on carpets manufactured in the eighties, such as tanks, machine guns and helicopters. Todays Afghani carpets mostly consists of nomad performances, but also commercial mass production occurs.

Esfahan carpets, a different name for Isfahan carpets.

Eskisher carpets, handknotted carpets made in Eskisher, west of Ankara in Turkey.

Fachralo carpets, handknotted carpets from Caucasia, see Kazak carpets.

Farahan carpets, a different name for Ferahan carpets.

Fars carpets, handknotted carpets from the province of Fars in south-western Iran. The carpets are knotted by resident as well as nomads in an area around the city of Shiraz, from the Persian Gulf in the south to the city of Abadeh in the north. The carpets from the Ghashghai nomads are of highest quality and have become models for carpet manufacturing in the whole region. The long sides of the Fars carpets (Shirazi) are often sewn in two colours and the warp are often made of wool. It is also common with borders on the short sides (without equivalence on the long sides). The fars carpets are in the same group or category of carpets such as the Ghashghai, Shiraz, Khamse, Gabbeh, Neyriz and Abadeh carpets.

Farsi baff, a different name for the Persian knot (also called asymmetrical knot and Senneh knot).

Ferahan carpets, Feraghan, Farahan carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Ferahan in western Iran. The carpets are knotted with a Persian knot on a warp made of cotton and the dominating colours are red and blue. They often have a Herati pattern, with or without a medallion. Older Ferahan carpets (before 1925) are of very high quality, the younger ones have a more simple pattern and are Mahal or Arak carpets made with rougher knotting.

Ferdovs carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Khorasan, Iran.
Figural carpets, a carpet whose central piece is dominated by animal or human motifs.

Flax, Li´num, a family of flax-plants found in temperate and sub-tropical regions, especially around the areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Sometimes used for warp and weft yarns in Oriental carpets with high knot density when the use of a thin warp was needed.

Flokati carpets (from Greek. floka´ti), Greek, handmade shepherd carpets with a long pile made of sheep wool. The carpets get their characteristic felted and shaggy looks from washing and beating in the streams from the mountains and the following drying in the sun.

Flossa carpets, resembles a rya carpet but has a shorter pile and fewer intervening wefts, giving the carpet a richer pattern.

Fluff, the surplus of fibres in a handknotted carpet. In general there is more fluff in a newer carpet than in an old one which is completely normal since the old one has been vacuumed several times. A good rule is not trying to vacuum all the fluff away at once on a new carpet since it wears the carpet unneccessary. The best way is to vacuum the carpet as usual removing all the loose fluff in it.

Flying carpet, a magical carpet that transports people sitting on it. These kind of carpets often occur in fairy tales and childrens movies.
Gabbeh carpets, handknotted nomad carpets from the province of Fars in southern Iran.

Gashghai carpet, a different name for Ghashghai carpets.

Garden pattern, Kheshti, also called mosaic or panel design. Usually occuring among Bakhtiari carpets for example and the pattern consists of stylized tree and floral motifs in squares (even ovals occur). The earliest existence of this design were found in Persia in the 16th century.

Gendje carpets, a different name for Gjandzja carpets.

Genuine carpets, a common but, not suitable denomination on handknotted Oriental carpets.

Georavan carpets, handknotted carpets from the village Georavan nearby Heriz, Iran.

Gerus carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Gerus, Iran.

Gharaghan carpets, handknotted strong carpets in dark colours from the district of Kurdistan, Iran.

Ghashghai carpets, also called Qashqai, Gaschgai, Gashghai, Kashgai carpets. Handknotted carpets from the province of Fars in southern Iran.

Ghiasabad, situated nearby Ghom close to the Sarough province. Also the place for manufacturing carpets with very shiny mohair wool, similar to Farahan carpets.

Ghiordes carpets, handknotted carpets from the city Ghiordes (Gördes) in western Turkey. The size of the carpets are often Dozar or smaller and with prayer niche motifs, larger carpets have medallions. Ghiordes carpets from before 1880 have a considerably higher technical and artistic quality than later examples.

Ghiordes knot, a different namn for the Turkish knot, named after the city Ghiordes (Gördes) in Turkey.

Ghom carpets, Qom, Ghome, Gom, Khum carpets, handknotted carpets from the city Ghom, Iran.

Gjandzja carpets, Gendje carpets, handknotted carpets from the area surrounding the city Gjandzja in Caucasia. The geometrical pattern on the carpet is related to the ones found on Karabach and Kazak carpets.

Goat hair, denomination for the rough hair covering the goat. Mostly used for warp and weft yarns and in some cases also for the sewn edges on the carpets long sides.

Golden Afghan carpets, denomination of Afghan carpets that originally been red, but now is bleached to a bronze-yellow nuance. It is also implies that the carpets have been knotted with a golden dyed wool.

Golpayegan, knotted in the western parts of central Persia in the Sarough area. The carpets are manufactured in a number of different patterns and often comes with a centrally placed medallion and a distinct defined border. The carpets are very durable with patterns clearly inspired from the 19th century British colonial power.

Goltugh carpets, Goltuk, Koltuk, Qoltug carpets, handknotted carpets from the area around the city Zanjan in northwestern Iran. The carpets are named after a Kurdish tribe and differs from usual Zanjan carpets through the double wefts, the very firm structure and their very high quality. The pattern usually consists of a hexagon in the middle surrounded by stylized floral motifs in beige, red and brown colours.

Guerati pattern, a rough stylized floral motif, covering the whole inner section. Commonly used on Beshir carpets.

Gujar-Khan carpets, handknotted carpets from a smaller place southeast of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Gwalior carpets, handknotted carpets from Gwalior in India.

Gül, (Persian gol “rose”), denomination of a floral motif on Oriental carpets.

Göl, elephantfoot-like, often octagonal repetitive pattern.

Habibian, famous carpet knotter from Iran. Fathollah Habibian was born in 1903 (d 1995) in Nain and together with his brother they started carpet manufacturing in 1920. Today, he is called “the father of Nain carpets” by many people in the line of business. Genuine Habibian carpets are very hard to find today, making some knotters to put a false signature on carpets of lower quality. Nain carpets from Habibian are available with 6La and 4La but never with 9La.

Hali, the worlds leading magazine about Oriental carpets and textiles. It was founded in London in 1978, issued 6 times a year and is published by HALI Publications Ltd., which is owned by the magazine publisher Centaur Communications.

Hamadan carpets, handknotted village carpets manufactured in a large number of villages around the city of Hamadan in northwestern Iran.

Hamedan carpets, a different name for Hamadan carpets.

Hand of Fatima, a stylized symbol that looks like a hand with five fingers representing “the five columns of Islam” (the prayer, the lent, the faith, the pilgrimage and the alms). This symbol occurs as an amulet and sometimes also as motifs on Iranian and Caucasian praying carpets.

Hatchlu pattern, common pattern on Turkoman tent curtains, engsi. The pattern consists of four fields and the space between the fields form a cross, hatchlu. The cross has no religious meaning.
Herat-baluch carpets, (see Beluch carpets) handknotted carpets from the border districts between Iran and Afghanistan.

Hemp, (Cannabis sativa) is a plant that originates from Central Asia. The plant has probably been grown for more than 4500 years. Hemp is an annual herb that is nowadays grown in mainly three groups; as fibres, for hemp-oil and for medical and narcotic stimulants. The advantage with hemp fiber is that it is strong, durable and not affected by water. Today hemp fibres are used in for example carpets, but also in ropes, strings and nets.

Herati pattern, after the city of Herat in northwestern Afghanistan.

Holbein carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured near Bergamo. It is an older type of carpets named after the painter Holbein.

Hosseinabad carpets, Huseinabad carpets, handknotted carpets from the village of Hosseinabad in northwestern Persia. Thick and rough carpets that are knotted with a Turkish knot. The pattern consists of a so-called Herati, inspired by older Ferahan carpets.

Hunting carpet, usually a handknotted carpet dominated by hunting motifs.

Hunting motif, a common motif on Persian carpets, believed to originate from Chinese paintings and its hunting scenes. In the motifs one can often see hunters on their horses, deers, predators and flowery trees – all surrounded by a heavy border.

Hyderabad carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Hyderabad, northeast of Karachi in Pakistan.

Ilan pattern, a string of cloud-like, stylized motif surrounded by smaller motifs covering the rest of the carpet.

Indjelas carpets, a different name for Enjilas carpets.
Indo carpets, handknotted carpets from India.

Injilas carpets, a different name for Enjilas carpets.

Iranian carpets, a different name for Persian carpets.
Isfahan carpets, Esfahan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Isfahan in central Iran.
Isparta carpets, Sparta carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Isparta in south-western Turkey. The carpets are manufactured in varying sizes, even very large ones. But, since the carpets are of low quality and with copied patterns from Persian carpets they are of poor interest.

Izmir carpets, Smyrna carpets, handknotted carpets that were manufactured in large amounts between 1880-1922 in the area around Izmir-Eskiehir-Isparta. The carpets were exported from Izmir (Smyrna) and given their name by that. They become common in the western homes thanks to low prices that arised from its rough knotting, simple pattern and simple colouring.
Jaipur carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured in the district of Jaipur, India.

Jerevan carpets, Yerevan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Jerevan in Armenia. Older Jerevan carpets are much coveted and are often called Eriwan- or Erevan carpets. The carpets that are newly produced come with patterns borrowed from the whole Caucasian area.

Jomut carpets, a different name for Yomut carpets.

Joraghan carpets, handknotted carpets in rough wool from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Joshagan carpets, Djoscheghan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Joshagan in central Iran. On these carpets a medallion with rhomb motifs are the most common, but also mina khani motifs, gül in henna motifs and weeping willow-motifs occur. The ground colour is blue, beige or red and newly made Joshagan carpets are known for their good handicraft quality.

Jozan carpets, Josan carpets, are manufactured in the village of Jozan, Iran. They are of high quality and are inspired by the Sarough carpets from the early 20th century. The patterns are a bit softer with ceremonious drawn motifs of vases or medallions with or without corner motifs. The carpets are also called Jozan-Sarough or Malayer-Sarough and the quality is comparable with Sarough and Malayer.
Jufti knot, a carpet knot where the Turkish or Persian knot is knotted around four warp-threads instead of two. In that way the carpet takes a shorter time to knot, but in return you get a much less durable surface on the carpet.
Jute, Co´rchorus, a family of limeplants with approximately 40 species of herbal plants. The material was used in former times for the warp in Indo carpets, but did not provide any durability because it is hard and fragile.

Kaba-Karaman carpets, they are knotted in the city of Karaman in the district of Konya, Turkey, by nomads. The carpets, often with a rough knotting, have Caucasian patterns.

Kab
istan, a more exclusive name in trading for Shirvan carpets of a certain size (Kelley).
Kaiseri carpets, a different name for Kayseri carpets.

Karabach carpets, Karabagh carpets, handknotted carpets from the southern Caucasus. These carpets often have geometrical patterns, but also inspired, stylized floral motifs from Iran, including roses and flowers with French influence. The carpets often have double rows of konts between the wefts; pile of wool in cochenill-red is common.

Karachi carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Karachi in Pakistan and its surrounding areas.

Karachop carpets, handknotted carpets from Caucasus, see Kazak carpets.

Karadagh carpets, handknotted runners from the district of Karabagh near the border to Caucasia.

Karadja carpets, a different name for Karaje carpets.

Karagheus carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Hamadan, Iran. These carpets often have a finer quality with geometrical drawn medallions that resemble Feraghan carpets.

Karaja carpets, a different name for Karaje carpets.

Karaje carpets, Karadja, Karaja carpets, handknotted carpets from the area around the village of Karaje in north-western Iran. The central piece of the carpets are generously decorated with several geometrical medallions dominated by red and blue colours. The Karaje carpets are knotted with the Hamadan technique, with one weft thread. Small sizes (up to Dozar) and runners are most common.

Karatjop carpets, handknotted carpets from the village of Karatjop in Georgia. See Kazak carpets.

Karistan carpets, a kind of handknotted carpets from Romania.

Kashan carpets, a different name for Keshan carpets.

Kashgai carpets, a different name for Ghashghai carpets.
Kashgar carpets, handknotted carpets from Xinjiang (East Turkestan) in western China.

Kashkooli, Gashgüli, Kashkoli, a denomination for Gabbeh and Ghashghai carpets referring to a shorter pile and higher knot density.

Kashmar carpets, handknotted carpets from the area of Kashmar in eastern Iran. See also Khorasan carpets.

Kashmir carpets, handknotted carpets from the Kashmir area in India and in Pakistan. These carpets were manufactured here already in the 15th century. Nowadays a large production of high knot density carpets with good wool quality occur, but unfortunately the plagiarism of the patterns make them less interesting in their artistic value.

Kaxgar carpets, handknotted carpets from Xinjiang (East Turkestan) in western China.

Kayseri carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Kayseri in central Turkey. The sizes are mostly smaller (also saff carpets are made). The patterns often consists of a prayer niche motif or Persian with soft colouring scale and beige ground colours. Besides the production of wool carpets a large production of silk carpets in a varying quality occur, also mercerised cotton is a common material.
Kazak carpets, Kazach, Kasak carpets, handknotted carpets from the area north and west of the Sevan Sea in southwestern Caucasia. The carpets are originally named after the village of Kazak, where they were manufactured before 1925, and they are the most well-known and appreciated ones of the Caucasian carpets. They are characterized from their long pile and sometimes up to eight weft threads between the rows of knots. The relatively loose knotted carpets have a pile of wool of high quality, which gives them good durability. They are mostly knotted in Dozar-size (approximately 200×120 cm) and are often evidently wide in comparison to the length. The colours are strong and the patterns are large and distinctive.

Kazakja, a denomination of smaller Kazak carpet.

Kelim, (Turk. kilim, from the Persian word gilim “roughly made blanket”). This is the most common kind of a handmade Oriental flat-weave. Kelim is also the denomination on the technique of weaving where the pattern is created by the weft threads, which are spun looser than the warp and completely covering this when they are packed together. The technique, which exists in a number of varieties, implies that the weft does not cover the whole width of the carpet, but “turns” when one want to change the colour. When changing colour a vertical gap is formed, a slit, which should not be too long due to its durability and can therefore often moved side-ways. This creates the characteristic stair-like diagonal patterns. Most of the weaves are equilateral and have covered thread ends. Anatolian kelims often have these loose ends on the backside and are usually, due to the small looms, woven in two lengths (with matching patterns so that they can be stitched together). The patterns are traditional and unaffected by the European styles. Extensive kelim weaving occured for example in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey, Caucasus and northwestern and southern Iran.

Kellegi, a denomination for the carpet that are placed crosswise in the set of carpets that the Iranian family often decorates a room with. Kellegi has also given name to the carpet denomination Kelley.

Kelley, kellei, size denomination for handknotted carpets where the length is unusually large (300-400 cm) in comparison to its width (however at least 120 cm).

Kemere carpets, handknotted carpets of a stronger type from the district of Irak-Ajemi.

Kenaréh, size denomination for Oriental carpets, runners, maximum width approximately 120 cm.

Kerman carpets, Kirman carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Kerman in southeastern Iran.
Kerman-Afshar carpets, handknotted carpets from southeastern Iran.
Kerman-Lavar carpets, Kerman-Raver carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Ravar north of the city Kerman in southeastern Iran. The best Kerman carpets are believed to be knotted here. Nowadays Ravar or the distortion Laver (Lavar) are used as a trading and quality denomination, sometimes even on Kerman carpets of relatively low quality.
Keshan carpets, Kashan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Kashan and its surroundings in central Iran.
Khal Mohammadi, carpets that are manufactured in villages and in workshops in Afghanistan through guidance of Khal Mohammadi. The carpets are very durable and are considered to be the best carpets with the highest quality from Afghanistan which has been achieved by using natural dyes in an excellent way. They can sometimes be made in Pakistan by refugees from Afghanistan who fled across the border.
Khamse carpets, handknotted carpets from the area around Khamse north of the city Hamadan in north-western Iran. See also Hamadan carpets.

Kheft, a kind of quality marking on Isfahan carpets, consisting of different colours on the warp threads.
Kheshti, a different name for Garden motif.
Khila carpets, handknotted carpets from the areas around Baku in Azerbajdzjan.

Khorasan carpets, handknotted carpets from the province of Khorasan in the northeast of Iran. The carpets have a high knot density on a warp of cotton with typical Persian patterns; medallions, palmettes, arabesques, Mir-e butha and Herati patterns. The special thing about these carpets are the diligent use of cochenil-red and a pile that despite its high quality is both soft and pliable. The Khorasan carpets are manufactured in varying sizes and belongs to the group of carpets such as the Mashad, Dorukhsh, Birjand, Moud, Nain and Kashmar carpets.
Khorjin, a small saddle bag from Persia and Turkey.

Kiaba, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Size approximately 170 × 270 cm or longer.

Kilim, a different name for Kelim.

Kirman carpets, a different name for Kerman carpets.

Kirman-Laver carpets, a different name for Kerman-Ravar carpets.

Kir-Sher carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Kir-Sher in Turkey.

Kizyl-Ajak carpets, handknotted carpet from the area between the city Kerki and the river Amu Darja, Turkmanistan.

Klardasht carpets, these carpets are manufactured in the village Klardasht in northern Iran.
Koliai carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by semi-nomadic Kolyais (Kurds) from the area around the city Songhor in western Iran.
Koltuk carpets, a different name for Goltuk carpets.
Kolyai carpets, a different name for Koliai carpets.

Komat carpets, handknotted carpets of middle thick quality from the district of Irak-Ajemi.

Konya carpets, Konia carpets, handknotted carpets from Konya in Turkey. Older examples, from the 19th century and before, often have borders on the short sides that are different from the ones on the longer sides. The newer carpets are entirely manufactured in wool and in sizes up to Dozar. The patterning, often Mihrab, are sparse and with a warm red colour.
Koy carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Azerbaijan that resembles the Tabriz carpets.

Kula carpets, Kulah carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Kula in western Turkey. In newer and older Kula carpets a special head border consisting of several thin lines with small floral motifs, as well as mihrab patterns, occur.

Kum-Kapu carpets, handknotted carpets from the quarter of the town Kumkapi in Istanbul, Turkey. The carpets have a very high knot density and have Persian patterns that often are made of silk with gold and silver threads. They were knotted between 1890 and 1910 (approximately) by immigrated Armenians from Kayseri in central Turkey and the carpets are very rare today. Kum-kapu are also used as a quality denomination for the finest Anatolian silk carpets.

Kurdish carpets, carpets that are manufactured by Kurdish nomads, semi-nomads and residents mainly in western Iran and south-eastern Turkey. There are also a smaller enclave of carpet knotting Kurds in the area of Quchan in north-western Iran. Kurdish carpets manufactured before World War II often have a warp of wool, while the recent carpets often have a warp made of cotton. The number of weft threads are 2-4 between the rows of knots and the motifs are heavily stylized, often geometrical and with rough heavily contrasting characteristic colours. Some of the Kurdish carpets includes, the Bakhthiari, Bijar, Goltuk, Koliai and Senna carpets are counted.

La, (Farsi word for layer). In connection with Nain carpets the denominations 4La, 6La and 9La often occur. These denominations are used to determine the quality of a Nain carpet and refers to the number of threads that are used for every warp-thread when manufacturing. The lower the number, the more exclusive and high knot density the carpet has. It is possible to control how many layers that have been used by counting the number of threads in one of the carpets fringes – if you are able to see 6 threads then it is a 6La carpet. In other words: the lower number the finer and more exclusive and expensive carpets, see the following enumeration: 4La = exclusive quality – 6La = extra fine quality – 9La = good quality. Nowadays it is very hard to find Nain 4La carpets.
Lâdik carpets, handknotted carpets from the village of Lâdik in Turkey. These, extremly rare, carpets were manufactured between 1600 and 1880 (approximately), with Mihrab patterns and stylized tulips. Newer carpets often comes with a number of different patterns and of varying quality.

Lahore carpets, handknotted carpets from the city with the same name in Pakistan.

Laver-Kerman carpets, handknotted carpets from south-eastern Iran. See also Kerman-Ravar carpets.

Leiha carpets, handknotted carpets from the city Leiha in Pakistan, near the border to India.

Lesghi carpets, a different name for Lezgi carpets.

Lesghian carpets, a different name for Lezgi carpets.

Lezgi carpets, Lesghi, Lesghian carpets, handknotted carpets from north-western Daghestan in Caucasia. The most common pattern is a twelve-pointed star, a so called Lesghi star. Carpets manufactured after 1925 have great similarity with Daghestan carpets.

Lilihan carpets, Lilian carpets, handknotted carpets from the village of Lillihan in the district of Arak in western Iran. The carpets often comes with a red central field with flower creepers around a medallion with a stylized cross. Using one weft thread and a Turkish knot this is technically a Hamadan carpet.

Loom, a stand for weaving by hand. A loom can be very simple without parts on the side; in that kind the warp is stretched from the back to an attach-point in the front. The easiest and probably the oldest loom is the horizontal ground weave for fabrics.

Lorestan carpets, Luristan, Loristan carpets, handknotted carpets made by the Lurs south-west of Isfahan in Iran. The carpets have a warp made of yarn from wool and goat hair, and sometimes cotton. The patterns are geometrical, mainly in dark blue and red colours and the long sides (Shirazi) are often two-coloured.

Lori carpets, also called Lorestan / Luristan carpets, are knotted by nomad tribes in the western parts of Persia. The carpets are often known to be of good quality in proportion to its price.

Lotto carpets, handknotted Anatolian carpets from the 16th century and ahead. The carpets are named after Lorenzo Lotto, that depicted them. The carpets belong to the group of Usak carpets and have geometrical patterns in yellow on a red bottom.

Luristan carpets, a different name for Lorestan carpets.
Mahal carpets, knotted in the western part of central Persia in the Sarough area. The carpets are manufactured in a number of different patterns, but often have a centrally placed medallion and a distinct defined border where the influence from the British Colonial power from the 19th century can be spotted. The Mahal carpets are very durable.

Mahalaf, another name for Mahal carpets.

Malayer carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Malayer, Iran. Beautiful carpets that are knotted with principally Turkish knot, but also Persian knot occurs. They often have a pattern with stylized floral motifs or geometric shaped medallions.

Mamluk carpets, a kind of hand knotted carpets from Egypt manufactured in Cairo during the Mamluk dynasty between 1250-1517. The carpets are large and have geometrical patterns in heavily red, blue and green colours.

Mashad carpets, Meshed carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Mashad in north-eastern Iran.
Maslaghan carpets, hand knotted carpets from the district of Irak-Ajemi.

Mekri carpets, Anatolian hand knotted carpet. Manufactured in Mekri, southeast of Melas in Turkey.

Melas carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Melas (today Milas) in south-western Turkey. The most common carpets are small and woven on a warp of wool and with double weft threads of wool or cotton. The carpets usually have Mihrab patterns with wide borders and the colours used are often brick-red and brown yellow.

Meriban carpets, hand knotted carpets from the village of Meriban, south of Heriz, Iran.

Meshed carpets, a different name for Mashad carpets.
Meshed-Baluch carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured by the Beluch in north-eastern Iran. See also Baluch carpets.
Meskin carpets, Meshkin carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Meskinshar in north-western Iran close to the border of Caucasia. The carpets are mostly runners with a heavy influence of Caucasian geometric patterns, often in violet-red. The older Meskin carpets have a warp of wool, the newer a warp of cotton.

Meyghan carpets, hand knotted carpets of heavy quality from the district of Irak-Ajemi.

Mianeh carpets, hand knotted carpets from an area south of Tabriz.

Mihrab, prayer niche, whose pointed part is aimed towards Mecca when a muslim person is praying.
Mikrach carpets, hand knotted carpets from Caucasia, see Dagestan carpets.

Mir carpets, carpets where the pattern is dominated by small mir-e butha. The carpets are manufactured mainly in the districts of Serabend- and Sarough in western Iran. Newly manufactured Mir carpets from India in subdued colours are very common nowadays.

Mir-e butha, buteh, together with the Herati pattern, the most common of the Oriental carpet patterns.
Mirzapur, district in India with a large production of carpets.
Mithi carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Mithi, Pakistan.

Mochtaschem, a different name for Mohtashem.

Mohair, (from Arabian mukhayyar) a fabric of goat hair/wool from the Angora goat. The fibres are longer, shinier and stronger than the wool from the sheep but less elastic. It is also very light and warm. It is used when manufacturing more exclusive carpets.

Mohtashem, Mochtaschem, originally the name on a 19th century famous carpet knotter from Keshan in Iran. Today, the term is used as a quality denomination on Keshan carpets, meaning the quality of wool used in the carpets is high.
Monastir carpets, Munastir carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Monastir (Bitola) in Macedonia. They were manufactured during the 18th and 19th centuries and the carpets (often praying carpets) are seldom longer than 1,5 m. Handspun yarn, beautiful natural colours and old genuine patterns have made these carpets into collector items.

Morchekar carpets, hand knotted carpets from an area north of Isfahan.

Moroccan carpets, see North African carpets.
Mosul carpets, a wrongful denomination on Hamadan carpets, which dates back to an earlier western export of these carpets through the city Mosul in Iraq.

Moud carpets, Mud carpets, hand knotted carpets form the city of Moud in Iran, a kind of Khorasan carpets.
Mudjur carpets, hand knotted Anatolian carpets. They are knotted in the area around the city of Kir-Sher in Turkey.

Mughal carpets, these carpets are knotted in India in the 16th and 17th century by drafted Persian knotters, on an initiative of the great mughals. Nowadays the carpets are rare collector’s item that stands out with contemporary Persian carpets.

Mughan carpets, hand knotted carpets from the district of Karabagh, Azerbajdzjan.

Multan carpets, hand knotted in the city of Multan, southwest of Lahore, Pakistan.

Munastir carpets, a different name for Monastir carpets.

Muskabad carpets, a different name for Mahal carpets.

Nahavand carpets, hand knotted carpets from the province of Hamadan. The pattern resemble those of the Malayer carpets.
Nain carpets, manufactured in the city of Nain, east of Isfahan.

Najafabad, hand knotted carpet from Iran, similar to Isfahan and Keshan carpets and are of very high quality. The carpets is thought to be very durable and often have medallion patterns in the colours of red, green, khaki and blue.

Ningxia carpets, Ninghsia carpets, hand knotted carpets from the Ningxia area in northern China. These carpets often have yellow nuances and traditional Chinese carpet patterns. They are knotted with a Persian knot on a warp of cotton and have a pile of high quality wool. The so called pillar carpets are mostly from Ningxia.

Niris carpets, hand knotted carpets from an area north of Shiraz, Iran.

Nomad carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by nomads, mainly in Turkey, Iran and Turkmenistan.

North African carpets, hand knotted carpets from Morocco, Tunis and Egypt.
Nushki carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Nushki, south of Quetta, Pakistan.

Odd border, a different name for Sjirvan border.

Ogurdschali carpets, hand knotted carpets that resemble Chaudor carpets.

Ornament rya, a warming bed quilt made in pile rug technique, that in former days was woven as a decoration in the environment for country people. The colourful pattern on the fluffy side was often taken from embroided cloths. See also rya.

Oriental carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured in separated areas between the Balkans and China. A hand knotted carpet is manufactured by placing rows of knots in different colours on a stretched warp, with weft threads between the rows making a pattern. Usually two kinds of knots are used; symmetrical and asymmetrical. The warp can be simple, diagonal or double.

Oushak carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Oushak in Turkey.
Pakistani carpets, handknotted carpets from Pakistan.

Panderma carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Panderma, south of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

Paotou carpets, a different name for Baotou carpets.

Paotow carpets, a different name for Baotou carpets.

Pazyryk, finding-place for a group of seven larger (largest diameter 47 m) and several smaller kurgans (graves). These are dated back to about 400-300 B.C. and are situated about 70 km from the Chinese border in eastern Altay, in the Russian federation. Because of the climate, the height (1 600 m above sea level) and the construction frost were formed in several graves, through which organic material was preserved. The graves are lowered and covered with timber and rope timbered chambers below low mounds of earth covered by heavy masses of rocks. North of every chamber, sacrificed horses with magnificent harness were found and the dead lied in log coffins which preserved the bodies.

Peking carpets, a different name for Beijing carpets.

Perde, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Size approximately 150 × 220 cm.

Persian carpets, handknotted carpets from Iran (Persia).
Persian knot, asymmetrical knot, Senneh knot, farsibaff.
Peshawar carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Peshawar, west of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Pile, the top layer of a carpets consists of the coloured, short threads (yarn) that stand up perpendicular from the warp. These make up the surface and the pattern of the carpet. The pile can be cut so that every thread has an end and they can also consist of loops.
Poland carpets, handknotted carpets, that in the 17th century, were manufactured in Isfahan and in Keshan and later in Poland, often with heraldic motifs.

Prayer carpet, are used by muslims when praying. The purpose of these carpets are, to create a place for praying, which is clean and delimited from the world around. The carpets do not need to be handmade, it can be flatwoven and machine made. Some carpets have a Mihrab pattern (praying niche pattern), showing the direction against Mecca and the carpets are, for practical reasons, always small (zaronim size at the most or approximately 150 × 100 cm).

Pushti, poshti, a size denomination, approximately 90 x 60 cm, for handknotted carpets. The name is, sometimes misleading, the denomination for smaller carpets from Anatolia.

Qain carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Qain south of Mashad, Iran.

Qashqai carpets, a different name for Ghashghai carpets.
Qoltug carpets, a different name for Goltuk carpets.

Qom carpets, a different name for Ghom carpets.
Quba carpets, Guba, Kuba carpets, handknotted carpets from the area around the city of Quba in eastern Caucasia. The carpets manufactured before 1925 have warp of wool and are woven with clear natural colours in geometrical patterns, often with a decorative edge in Soumak technique in the short sides and with artistic braided fringes. Other carperts that belong to the The Quba carpets group are for example Karagasjli, Konagend, Tji-tji, Perepedil, Zejchur and Zejva carpets.
Quetta carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Quetta, Pakistan.

Rawalpindi, former capital of Pakistan. Nowadays a city with mass production of handknotted carpets.
Ravar-Kerman carpets, the same as Kerman-Ravar carpets.

Red carpet, a long, red-coloured carpet that is rolled out at entrances in connection with ceremonial occasions and exclusive visits.

Ribs(Eng. ribs, pl. of rib), is a plain weave of the highest degree, with a weaving technique with a warp effect. It is woven with two kinds of weft.Rougher or tighter qualities on the threads gives it raised stripes in the direction of the warp or the weft. The thin weft gives the impression that the pattern exchanges place in the fabric. Ribs carpets are woven with a warp of cotton, and the colour changes in the warp gives it a squared pattern.

Romanian carpets, handknotted carpets from Romania.

Runner, Persian Kenareh, a size denomination of a handknotted carpet whose length is at least three times as long as its width. The length varies from at least approximately 2.5 m and the width between approximately 0.5 m and 1.2 m.

Rya, a weaving technique that is something between weaving and genuine needle work. Much like a pile carpet and used mostly on carpets, wall-hangings and cushions. Due to its field of application it is also the reason why the breed of sheep was saved from extinction at the beginning of the 20th century.

Rya carpets, rya, a carpet made as a pile rug with a relatively long pile, often made of wool yarn. The warming rya quilt for everyday use was placed with the pile downwards, while the side with the ornament was placed up to and rich decorated.
Rya quilt, the precursor of the rya carpet, which was used with the pile side downwards in bed. The quilt missed the thorough pattern that was found on the later rya carpets. If the pile is covering the whole surface of the weave, then it is a full rya and if the pile is knotted in just to create a decorative pattern on parts of the weave while the rest consists of traditional fabric, the weave is called semi rya.
Saff carpets, hand knotted praying carpets with patterns of several mihrabs in a row. The pattern of the carpets of heavily reduced mihrabs occur mostly among Turkish and Pakistani carpets. Mihrabs in full size occur mainly among older carpets from East Turkestan.

Sahend carpets, a denomination on better newly manufactured Tabriz carpets.

Salor carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by Salors, a Turkoman ethnic group before 1860. The carpets are rare and of high quality. Their typical göl constitutes of an octagon surrounded by double hooks, often with a star in the middle. The pattern is also used by other Turkoman people, but are always called Salorgöl.

Samarkand carpets, a generic term for handknotted carpets from East Turkestan, sold through Samarkand.

Sarab carpets, Serab carpets are handknotted carpets of high quality, manufactured in and around the city of Sarab in Azarbaijan in northwestern Iran. Older carpets (manufactured before 1930-40) are often knotted on a warp of wool while the newer ones are knotted on a cotton warp. The most common geometrical patterns are blue, red and camel-brown. There is also large production of runners in this type of carpets.

Saraband carpets, a different name for Seraband carpets.

Sarderud carpets, hand knotted carpets with a short pile surface, made of good wool from the district of Hamadan, Iran.

Saroq carpets, a different name for Sarough carpets.

Sarough carpets, Saruk, Sarouk, Saroq carpets, hand knotted carpets from the place Saruq and its surroundings in western Iran. The carpets are made of shiny wool with a Persian knot on a double warp of cotton, which gives a strong and durable carpet. Carpets in red and blue colours are common, sometimes with stylized floral motifs.

Sarouk carpets, a different name for Sarough carpets.

Saruk carpets, another name for Sarough carpets.

Saveh carpets, usually very colourful carpets with geometrical patterns. They are knotted with Turkish knots by nomads, south of Teheran. The colours are often darkred and strong blue nuances. The carpets are of high quality and very durable, due to the fact that the wool is of very high quality.

Savonnerie pattern, bears a resemblence to the Rococo pattern.

Schuscha carpets, handknotted carpets from the district of Karabagh, Azerbajdzjan.

Sedjadeh, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Size approximately 130 × 180 cm.

Sehna carpets, a different name for Senneh carpets.
Seirafian-Isfahan, knotted in the city of Isfahan in southwest of Persia. The carpet knotter Haj Agha Reza Seirafian began knotting carpets in 1939 and distinguished himself later on by only using the best pattern-drawers, weavers, colours and the best materials. Thereby, the carpets also gained a lot of attention for their high quality. The carpets are thought to be the finest of all Persian carpets and have a very high knot density and are exquisite handicraft. After his death the handicraft lives on through his many sons.

Semi-antique, age denomination for Oriental carpets, in general equal to 50-100 years old.

Semnan carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Semnan, east of Teheran, Iran.

Senna carpets, a different name for Senneh carpets.
Senneh carpets, Sehna, Senna carpets, handknotted carpets from the Kurdish city of Sanandaj (former Senna) in western Iran.
Senneh knot, a different name for Persian knot (also called asymmetrical knot or farsibaff).
Seraband carpets, (after Saravand, a district in western Iran). Handknotted carpets are manufactured here in the district of Arak in western Iran. The center field in the carpet, mostly red can be with or without a medallion, but are always dominated by a repetitive mir-e butha. The carpets are often roughly knotted and occur in all sizes.

Serapi carpets, handknotted carpets in Heriz quality.

Serapi pattern, a special quality of the Heriz carpet, characterized by cypresses on a terracotta red bottom.
Shah Abbasi pattern, a commonly occuring center field pattern on Oriental carpets.
Shahjahanpur, an area in India with large production of carpets.
Shahsevan carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured by the Shahsevan nomads in the province Azarbaijan in northwestern Iran. The tribe has moved over large areas earlier and took a lot of impressions from patterns and colours. The carpets are knotted today in Hamadan technique and the motifs are stylized and geometric in clear and saturated colours.

Sherkat Farsh (Persian; carpet company) is a foundation that was established about 70 years ago in Iran. The purpose with this foundation is to uphold the old traditions from the Persian carpet culture and to maintain the quality in the countrys carpet production. Nowadays the foundation organizes quality production of carpets in 500 villages and 100 cities around Iran. Sherkat Farsh carpets have a high knot density, naturally dyed wool of high quality and with beautiful patterns and colour combinations the tradition lives on in these durable carpets.

Shiraz carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured by nomads as well as residents in and around the city of Shiraz in southern Iran.
Shirazi, the sewn or woven edge on the long side of a handknotted Oriental carpet.

Shirvan carpets, Shirwan carpets, another name for Sjirvan carpets.

Shredded carpet, a woven carpet in lengths with weft of cut (or torn) shredded fabrics in shred weaving. The shredded carpets became popular in the Swedish countryside after 1860 at the start of making paper (wood) pulp of wood instead of linen rags. Shredded carpets are typical of the Swedish country homes, but periodically have been commonly used and are still of great importance for their handicraft.
Shredded weaving, a weaving technique where the weft consists of shreds from usually used fabrics. They were originally used as bottom sheets and covers. The use of putting the shredded weaving on the floor (shredded carpet) began later and increased in the end of the 19th century.

Siebenbürgen carpets, a different name for Transsylvanian carpets, Romania. The pattern are similar to the ones found on Bergamo carpets.

Sileh carpets, flatwoven carpets in a tangled technique, manufactured in southern Caucasia. The carpets usually have rich patterns with red as the main colour and with large angular S-motifs. They lack borders and are woven in two pieces due to the thin looms.

Silk, natural silk, textile fibres from cocoons mainly from the Silkworm.
Silk-Hereke carpets, manufactured in the city of Hereke near the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.
Silk-Saff carpets, Saff carpets, manufactyured in silk. Mainly from the districts of Kayseri and Brusa in Turkey.

Sinkiang carpets, hand knotted carpets from the area of Xinjiang in western China.

Sirjan carpets, hand knotted carpets from Sirjan in southern Iran. Many nomadic tribes such as the Ghashghais and the Afshars gather lots of influences for their carpets from Sirjan. They are famous for their Sofreh productions, a kind of Kelim that is often small and squared.

Sisal carpets, uncoloured carpets in a simple woven construction.

Sivas carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Sivas and surroundings in eastern Turkey. Workshop carpets of good quality are made here, often with Persian patterns and blue faded colours. The countryside production of these carpets are more original and primitive.

Sjirvan border, also called odd border due to the similarity with odd writings, usually a head border in Sjirvan carpets and Cuba carpets. The border consists of a double hook-border that forms squares.

Sjirvan carpets, Shirvan carpets, hand knotted carpets from the Sjirvan area in Azerbajdzjan. Older Sjirvan carpets (from before 1925) are manufactured entirely in wool and by plant dyed handspun yarn. Geometrical motifs as eightpointed stars, cross and mir-e butha are common, so is stylized animals and humans. The Sjirvan border is the most common. The carpets are often both knotted with high density and with tight patterns. Small carpets are the most common, but also larger formats (up to Kelley) occurs. Older Sjirvan carpets are nowadays coveted collector’s items. Newer production of these carpets are knotted on a warp of cotton with syntethic dyed, machine spun yarn and are suitable as durable utility carpets, but often without any artistic interest.

Smyrna carpets, handknotted carpets, see Izmir carpets.

Songhur carpets, strong hand knotted carpets from the district of Kurdistan. These carpets are similar to Bidjar carpets.

Soumak carpets, Sumak carpets, a denomination on Oriental flatweaves manufactured with Soumak technique. This type of carpet probably got its name from the city of Sjemacha in the province of Quba in Caucasia. This kind of carpet from Caucasia are well-known and much coveted since a long time ago. The same kind of carpets, weaves and utility goods are also manufactured in Turkey, as well as at the Afshars, Beluchs and Shahsevans.

Soumak technique, Sumak technique, a weaving technique, where the stretched warp is sideways and entangles the yarn for the pattern over four warp threads and after that back under two, over four and so on. Several variants occur on this technique.

Soutschbolag carpets, hand knotted strong carpets from the district of Kurdistan.

Sparta carpets, a different name for Isparta carpets.

Srinagar, the province capital in Kashmir, India, and also the center for the carpet production.

Star Ushak carpets, these carpets are made in the city of Ushak in western Turkey during the 16th – 19th centuries. The carpets are characterized by repetative patterns with yellow stars on a red bottom.

Sultan carpets, handknotted carpets from Turkey, similar to Yürük carpets.

Sumak carpets, a different name for Soumak carpets.
Symmetrical knot, a different name for a Turkish knot.
Tabriz carpets, Täbriz carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Tabriz in northwestern Iran.
Tafresh carpets, handknotted carpets with a short pile surface, from the district of Iraq-Ajemi.
Taibaff, handknotted carpets in high quality from the district of Khorasan.

Talim, the denomination of a pattern origin. Often a squared paper where the pattern is drawn. Every square with its own colour represents a knot.
Talisch carpets, handknotted carpets or runners, from the district of Azerbaijan.

Tatami, (Japanese), a carpet that in Japan is used to cover the floor. The carpet consists of a thick core, that measures a few centimetres, made by compressed straws that is covered with a soft woven carpets made of reed with borders of fabric along the sides. The size varies in different parts of Japan, but the most common size is approximately 180 x 90 cm. A room size in Japan is measured in the number of tatamis.

Tehran carpets, manufactured in the capital of Iran. Nowadays, no new production occurs so most of the existing Teheran carpets are about 50 years old. The carpets are knotted with Senneh knots, often darkred with blue elements and ivory-white contrasts. The patterns are usually medallions and floral motifs, panelling and niche motifs. Even with the presence of animal and figural patterns.

Tekke carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured by the Tekke tribe in southern Turkmenistan. The carpets are entirely made of wool with red as the dominating colour and repetitive patterns with göls are common.

The Coronation Carpet in Copenhagen, handknotted carpet (528 × 310 cm). Made with a bottom-weave in cotton, patterns in silk and a single coloured background of gold threads, probably knotted in Isfahan, Iran. It was donated in 1666 according to reports, to the Danish Royal Court by the Dutch East India Company. Ever since 1699 the carpet has been used at all autrocratic Danish kings coronation and can be found att the Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen and and is shown to the public during one week in October every year.

The Swedish Royal Hunting Carpet, a very well-preserved court workshop carpet from the second half of the 16th century which can be found at the Stockholm Castle. The carpet is manufactured in silk with a number of patterns made with gold and silver threads and the carpet is belived to be made in the city of Keshan in Iran. A light medallion with a red central piece with lots of hunting scenes framed by a wide, heavily ornamented border on a yellow ground is evident. It was probably brought to Sweden in connection with Carl X Gustav tell with Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp in 1654 and is believed together with two contemporary, similar hunting carpets (one in Österreichisches Museum für angewandte Kunst, Wien and one in Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milano) to be the absolutely finest existing pieces from the art of knotting Oriental carpets.

The Marby Carpet, handknotted Anatolian carpet from the 15th century, discovered in the Marby church in Jämtland, Sweden. The carpet can be found since 1925 at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm. The Marby Carpet is entirely manufactured in wool with wefts of red and brown wool yarn. It has great similarities with the Berlin Carpet. The carpet was once cut in the middle but has now been put together again.

The Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest known handknotted carpet (from 500 B.C.). The carpet was found in 1947 in a grave in the Pazyryk Valley in the Altay Mountains in Siberia. The carpet, knotted with a Turkish knot, is almost squared (200×190 cm). The knot density is about 300.000 knots per square metre.
Tianjin carpets, Tientsin carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Tianjin in eastern China (today a center for commercial knotting in China). The knotting, which began in the 1920’s, was soon adapted to the demands from the western according to colours and patterns.
Tibetan carpets, a denomination partly on handknotted carpets from Tibet, and partly on carpets manufactured by Tibetan refugees mainly in Nepal.
Tibetan knot, this knot is made by using a temporary rod, which is placed in front of the warp.
Tientsin carpets, a different name for Tianjin carpets.

Tjaudor carpets, Chaudor carpets, handmade carpets, manufactured by the Turkoman Tjaudor tribe, living south of the Aral Sea. The carpets are made of wool and coloured with natural dyes, dominated by light rust-brown. The most common pattern is the so called Ertmen-göl, a rhomb placed on its top.

Tji-tji carpets, Chi-chi carpets, handknotted carpets, manufactured by the Chechens in northest Caucasia. The carpets are made entirely of wool and coloured with natural dyes, often with indigo as a bottom colour. The pattern consists of a central field with stars and göls, surrounded by a border-section with characteristic diagonal rods. The most common size is the Zaronim or approximately 150 x 100 cm. Since 1925 the manufacturing of Tji-Tji carpets have been of extremly insignificant range.

Tjuval, Chuval, Tschoval, a Turkoman storage sack with an average size of 150 × 50 cm. The frontside of the sack is knotted with a Turkoman pattern and the backside is woven. The sacks are used for storing things and for storage of utility goods.

Transsylvanian carpets, a denomination of handknotted carpets from Romania in the 17th and 18th centuries. Most of the carpets are found in churches in Transylvania in Romania and in southern Hungary but they are probably knotted in Anatolia. The greater part consists of praying carpets with Anatolian patterns. The carpets are also called Siebenbürgen carpets.

Tree Of Life, a detailed pattern with Buddhistic and Muslim symbols that also have roots in the European and Nordic mythology. Often occuring on prayer carpets. Can also be found as a carpet with high knot density in wool from New Zeeland.

Tschoval, a different name for Tjuval.

Tuiserkan, hand knotted carpets with high knot density from the district of Hamadan.

Tunisian carpets, see North African carpets.
Turkbaff, a kind of Oriental carpet knot, the same as Turkish knot. Also the name of a carpet manufactured in the surroundings of Mashad, Iran.
Turkish carpets, a different name for Anatolian carpets.
Turkish knot, Ghiordes knot, symmetrical knot, turkbaff, a way of fixing the pile yarn to the warp in a handknotted carpet, which occurs in a varying extension in most carpet knotting areas.
Turkoman carpets, a summarizing denomination on carpets knotted by different Turkoman tribes.

Täbriz carpets, a different name for Tabriz carpets.
Usak carpets, a different name for Ushak carpets.

Ushak carpets, Usak carpets, handknotted carpets from the city of Ushak in western Turkey. Between 16th -19th century many famous styles of carpets were knotted here, such as the Bird-Uhsak carpets, Stern-Ushak carpets, Lotto carpets together with a more Persian inspired medallion carpet. The carpets are entirely knotted in wool, with red as the dominating colour. A deterioration of the quality began around 1850 and todays productions are considered to be of less interest.

Vagire, handknotted smaller carpet, which is often used as a kind of sample for the carpet. Either a smaller piece of the carpet is reproduced or some of the large carpets existing patterns and colours are shown. The area around Bijar in northwestern Iran is a large place for manufacturing these samples.

Vase carpets, handknotted carpets from the 17th and 18th century, manufactured in the city of Kerman in southeastern Iran. Since the patterns lack a centered motif, it should be viewed from one direction and sometimes vases can be found in the rich variety of patterns. These carpets are woven using a special technique with a double warp and three weft threads.

Veramin carpets, handknotted carpets manufactured in and around the city of Veramin in northern Iran. These workshop carpets often have a mina khani-pattern, a repetitive pattern with flowers arranged four by four in an all-over patterned central field, dominated by red and blue. The manufacturing in the surroundings of this city is varied, with kelims being manufactured for example.

Verné carpets, a different name for Verni carpets.

Verni carpets, Verné carpets, a kind of flat woven carpets made in a soumak-like technique. The carpets are usually manufactured in southern and southeast of Caucasia, but also in Turkey and Turkmenistan. They are entirely made of wool, with red as the dominating colour and often with a squared pattern, sometimes with stylized bird motifs.

Village carpets, a generic term for carpets made by the village people in the Orient.

Wall-to-wall carpet, a carpet that covers the whole floor. Very popular in the 70’s and very common in American homes today. It is extremly rare with handknotted wall-to-wall carpets but occasionally few have occured.
Warangal carpets, handknotted carpets from the village of Warangal, India.

Warp, refers to the thread alongside the woven fabric that is attached to the loom. The length of the thread decides partly which kind of loom is to be used and the conditions of the warp one may have.

To the left: The white threads are the warp.
Weft, is the thread that is put between each row of knots in a carpet. When manufacturing handknotted carpets this thread often consists of cotton and wool, but other materials occur.

Wiener Jagdteppich, hand knotted carpet, manufactured in the 16th century in the city of Keshan in central Iran. The carpet is entirely made of silk and with an extremly high knot density. It was donated by a Persian shah to Peter I, who then gave it to Leopold I, prince of Anhalt-Dessau. The carpet is thought to be the foremost of the court workshop carpets.

Wilton carpets, machine manufactured pile carpets with patterns that resembles Persian ones. The name originates from the city of Wilton in Wiltshire, England which by the 16th century was manufacturing handmade carpets. Since the middle of the 19th century all carpets made were machine manufactured and occured in almost every size.

Wool, hair from sheep, or from other animals. The roughest wool is used for manufacturing carpets.

Xinjiang carpets, Sinkiang carpets, hand knotted carpets from the area of Xinjiang in northwestern China.

Yagcibedir carpets, hand knotted carpets from the area around the city of Sindirgi in western Turkey. The carpets are entirely made of wool with two weft threads between the rows of knots. The patterns are geometrical, and the colours mainly red and blue, are dull or sometimes gloomy. The most common sizes are zaronim and runners.

Yahyali carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Yahyalù in central Turkey. The carpets are made of wool, have geometric patterns and often medallions. Red and blue together with a mustard yellow colour are the most common colours.

Yalameh carpets, hand knotted carpets from the Yalameh tribe in the province of Fars. The carpets are well-known for their distinctive richness of patterns and powerful deep colours.

Yaprak pattern, characterized by large, natural drawn motifs with leafs creating rhombs and medallions. Named after the city Yapraklar in Turkey.

Yarkand carpets, (after the city Yarkant, China), hand knotted carpets from the area of Xinjiang in northwestern China.

Yastik, a size denomination for Oriental carpets, mostly Turkish ones, whose sizes are approximately 90× 45 cm. Sometimes the denomination are wrongfully used on different types of smaller carpets from different parts of Turkey.

Yazd carpets, Yesd carpets, hand knotted carpets from the city of Yazd in central Iran. The carpets have great similarities with the Kerman carpets. These carpets have a very detailed pattern and a high pile and in the changing colour range a characteristic purple/red colour is visible. The warp and weft is made of cotton.
Yomut carpet, Jomut, Yomud carpets, hand knotted carpets are manufactured by the Turkoman Yomut tribe, who live east of the Caspian Sea and in northeastern Iran. Typical colours for these carpets are a redbrown nuance and yellow are often used. Common products are utility goods such as bags, tent-ropes, camel ornamentes etc.

Yürük carpets, hand knotted carpets, entirely made of wool, manufactured by the Yürük tribe in eastern Turkey. They have long, often naturally coloured pile of high quality and simple geometric patterns are characteristic. Dominating colours in the carpets are indigo-blue, madder red and also green, brown and curry-yellow.

Zaghe carpets, hand knotted carpets of a strong wool-type from the district of Kurdistan.

Zanjan carpets, Zendjan, Zenjan carpets, hand knotted carpets from the area around the city of Zanjan in northwestern Iran. These carpets are knotted on a cotton-warp with Hamadan technique and syntethic colours dominate. The most common size are Dozar, among the patterns medallions dominate. Older carpets (from before World War II) often have a warp made of wool and double wefts.

Zarand carpets, hand knotted carpets from the district of Iraq-Ajemi.

Zaronim, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Sizes from 150×100 cm to 106 x 110 cm. The measurements can vary a little between different carpet knotting areas.

Zarquart, a size denomination on Oriental carpets. Size approximately 60 × 125 cm.

Zendjan carpets, a different name for Zanjan carpets.

Ziegler carpets, hand knotted carpets manufactured between 1883-1930 in the district of Arak in western Iran. The carpets that were manufactured for the Brittish company Ziegler & Co, hade Persian patterns (existing styles were often copied), pastel colours and large formats. Warp and weft were made of cotton.
Zil-e-sultan pattern, (Persian “the shadow of the Sultan”), an occuring all-over pattern on Oriental carpets, consisting of vases with flower bouquets surrounded by birds. The ground colour is often light. The pattern occurs on Ghom carpets for example.